11 Deep foundations

Description hierarchy

<LandXML> Transfer file

<Units><Metric> Units (Metric)

<CoordinateSystem> Coordinate and elevation system


- <Start> Base point

<Project> Project


<Feature> "IM_codings" extension
type coding systems

<Application> Application


<Author> Authors

<FeatureDictionary> Definition dictionary of extensions

<im:PileGroups> Collection of pile groups


<im:PileGroup> Pile group



- <im:TopBoundary> Pile group outer boundary at the top (ground level)




- <im:Feature> "IM_coding" extension
surface type coding



- <im:BottomBoundary> Pile group outer boundary at the bottom (target level)




- <im:Feature> "IM_coding" extension
surface type coding



Pile types PIle types by section profiles



- <im:CircPile> Circular pile size (and other properties)



- <im:SquarePile> Square pile size (and other properties)



- <im:Pile> Individual piles in a pile group




- <im:GroutLayer> Grout layers of an individual pile


11.1 Contents

An Inframodel file of any plan contains the header information described in the section 1.
This section describes deep foundations (such as pile groups) transferred using <any> element under <LandXML>. The xml schema (im.xsd) for these extensions is available at Inframodel schema page.

11.2 Pile groups

Collection of pile groups in a soil stabilization plan.

<im:PileGroups> have two optional attributes:

- name name of pile groups collection
- desc description of the pile groups collection e.g. [soil stabilization in area 52]

11.3 Pile group

Each individual pile group in a pile groups collection representing a stabilization plan is described under <im:PileGroup> element. Each pile group shall have an inividual identifier oID, and may have a name and description. A number of other attributes may used to describe the material properties of the pilings; spacing between piles (center to center) in the grid can be spcified in pileSpacing attribute. The size of an individual pile can be specified in subelement <im:CircPile> or <im:SquarePile>, respectively (choice by the type of pile cross section).

1) Attributes of <im:PileGroup>:


- oID unique identifier of the pile group
- name name of pile group
- desc description of the pile group
- targetShearResistance target value of shear resistance (kPa) of piles in this pile group
- groutType grout type of piles in this pile group
- groutIntensity grout intensity of piles in this pile group, as measure of weight by volume (kg/m3)
- withdrawalRate withdrawal rate per auger rotation for piles in this pile group (mm/r)
- minRotationRate minimum rate of rotation for piles in this pile group (r/min)
- maxRotationRate maximum rate of rotation for piles in this pile group (r/min)
- minInjectionPressure minimum injection pressure for piles in this pile group, in pressureUnit set for the file
- maxInjectionPressure maximum injection pressure for piles in this pile group, in pressureUnit set for the file
- airInjectionRate rate of air injection for piles in this pile group, in flowUnit set for the file
- pileSpacing spacing of piles (c/c) in this pile group, in linearUnit set for the file


2)The size of an individual pile in a pile group is set in <im:CircPile> or <im:SquarePile>, respectively. All piles in a group are expetected to share the same shape and size.

Attributes of <im:CircPile>:

- diameter section diameter of circular pile in diameterUnits


Attributes of <im:SquarePile>:

- width section width of square pile in widthUnit


3)The top and bottom boundaries of a pile group are given in <im:TopBoundary> and <im:BottomBoundary> elements as irregular lines, defined by point lists (min. 3 points with 2D northing easting coordinates separated by spaces); the delimiting surfaces at the top and at the bottom may set by reference in surfaceRef attribute to the <Surface> element with geometry definition, or the coding of the initial and target surfaces may be given in "IM_coding" <im:Feature>.

<im:TopBoundary>northing1 easting1 northing2 easting2 northing3 easting3 ...</im:TopBoundary>
<im:BottomBoundary>northing1 easting1 northing2 easting2 northing3 easting3 ...</im:BottomBoundary>


Attributes of <im:TopBoundary> and <im:BottomBoundary>:

- surfaceRef reference to the surface element with top/bottom surface definition [surfaceNameRef]


11.4 Pile

Individual piles in a pile group are described under <im:Pile> element. Each pile shall have an individual identifier oID and status, as well as optional topPoint, bottomPoint, horizontalDirection and slope

1) Attributes of <im:Pile>:

- oID unique identifier of the pile
- status status of the pile e.g. [planned]
[started]
[under construction]
[finished]
- topPoint top centre point of pile
e.g. [northing easting elevation]
- bottomPoint bottom centre point of pile
e.g. [northing easting elevation]
- horizontalDirection horizontal direction of pile slope in directionUnits
- slope slope of pile in angularUnit


1) Attributes of <im:GroutLayer>:


- startLevel start level of grout layer in elevationUnits
- endLevel end level of grout layer in elevationUnits
- groutIntensity grout intensity of piles in this pile group, as measure of weight by volume (kg/m3)